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Therefore, Derrida said: "This end of History is essentially a Christian eschatology. Various Western commentators have described the thesis of The End of History as flawed because it does not sufficiently take into account the power of ethnic loyalties and religious fundamentalism as a counter-force to the spread of liberal democracy, with the specific example of Islamic fundamentalismor radical Islam, as the most powerful of these.

Benjamin Barber wrote a article and a book, Jihad vs. McWorldthat addressed End Title theme. Barber described " McWorld " as a secular, liberal, corporate-friendly transformation of the world and used the word " jihad " to refer to the competing forces of tribalism and religious fundamentalism, with a special emphasis on Islamic fundamentalism.

Samuel P. In the essay and book, Huntington argued that the temporary conflict between ideologies is being replaced by the ancient conflict between civilizations. The dominant civilization decides the form of human government, and these will not be constant. He especially singled out Islamwhich he described as having "bloody borders". In the weeks after the attacks, Fareed Zakaria called the events "the end of the end of history", while George Will wrote that history had "returned from vacation".

Fukuyama did discuss radical Islam briefly in The End of History. He argued that Islam is not an imperialist force like Stalinism and fascism; that is, it has little intellectual or emotional appeal outside the Islamic "heartlands". Fukuyama pointed to the economic and political difficulties that Iran and Saudi Arabia face and argued that such states are fundamentally unstable: either they will become democracies with a Muslim society like Turkey or they will simply disintegrate.

Moreover, when Islamic states have actually been created, they were easily dominated by the powerful Western states. In OctoberFukuyama, in a Wall Street Journal opinion piece, responded to the declarations that the September 11 attacks had disproved his views by stating that "time and resources are on the side of modernity, and I see no lack of a will to prevail in the United States today.

End Title challenge to the "end of history" thesis is the growth in the economic and political power of two countries, Russia and China. China has a one-party state government, while Russia, though formally a democracy, is often described as an autocracy ; it is categorized as an anocracy in the Polity data series.

He considered the challenge of China and Russia to be the major threat, since they could pose a viable rival model which could inspire other states. In his Washington Post opinion piece, Fukuyama also addressed this point. He wrote, "Despite recent authoritarian advances, liberal democracy remains the strongest, most broadly appealing idea out there.

Inon the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the publication of the original essay, "The End of History? He wrote that, while liberal democracy still had no real competition from more authoritarian systems of government "in the realm of ideas", nevertheless he was less idealistic than he had been "during the heady days of He stated that the biggest problem for the democratically elected governments in some countries was not ideological but "their failure to provide the substance of what people want from government: personal security, shared economic growth and the basic public services Twenty-five years later, the most serious threat to the end-of-history hypothesis isn't that there is a higher, better model out there that End Title someday supersede liberal democracy; neither Islamist theocracy nor Chinese capitalism cuts it.

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