Jude helps us answer this question. Did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode : This offence was connected with some kind of sexual sin, such as the sexual union between rebellious angelic beings the sons of God in Genesis and the human beings the daughters of men in Genesis We know that there was some sexual aspect to this sin because Jude tells us in the following verse, Jude 7: as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them in a similar manner to these, having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh.
The words in a similar manner to these refers back to the angels of Jude 6, and the words gone after strange flesh refers to their unnatural sexual union. We know some things about this unnatural sexual union from Genesis 6. We know that this unnatural union produced unnatural offspring. We can add another piece of knowledge from Jude 6. This unnatural union prompted God to uniquely imprison the angels who sinned in this way. They are reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day.
As for the specific details of this unnatural union, it is useless to speculate. Perhaps it happened through a unique form of demon possession and the fallen angel worked through a human host.
He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day : God judged these wicked angels, setting them in everlasting chains. Apparently some fallen angels are in bondage while others are unbound and active among mankind as demons. By not keeping their proper place, they are now kept in chains. Their sinful pursuit of freedom put them in bondage. In the same way, those who insist on the freedom to do whatever they want are like these angels — bound with everlasting chains.
True freedom comes from obedience. If angels cannot break the chains sin brought upon them, we are foolish to think that humans can break them. This reminds us that these angels who sinned with an unnatural sexual union are no longer active. With His radical judgment back in the days of Noah, God put an end to this kind of unnatural sexual union.
First, it assures us that the certain men causing trouble will be judged, no matter what their spiritual status had been. These angels at one time stood in the immediate, glorious presence of God — and now they are in everlasting chains. If God judged the angels who sinned, He will judge these certain men.
Secondly, it warns us that we also must continue walking with Jesus. We must keep walking and be on guard. As Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them in a similar manner to these, having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh, are set forth as an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.
Sodom and Gomorrah were blessed, privileged places. They were situated in a blessed area: it was well watered everywhere… like the garden of the LORD Genesis Having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh : Jude refers to the account in Genesis 19, where the homosexual conduct of the men of Sodom is described.
Ezekiel tells us of other sins of Sodom: Look, this was the iniquity of your sister Sodom: She and her daughter had pride, fullness of food, and abundance of idleness; neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. Sexual depravity was not their only sin, but it was certainly among their sins, and Jude makes this plain.
The sins described in Ezekiel show that Sodom and Gomorrah were indeed prosperous, blessed areas. But despite their great blessing from God and material prosperity, they sinned and were judged. Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire : In Genesis 19, Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed with fire from heaven. Far worse than what happened in Genesis 19, they suffered the vengeance of eternal fire. First, it assures us that the certain men causing trouble will be judged, no matter how much they had been blessed in the past.
Just as Sodom and Gomorrah were once wonderfully blessed but eventually suffered the vengeance of eternal fireso will it be with these certain men. Likewise also these dreamers defile the flesh, reject authority, and speak evil of dignitaries. When Jude pointed out that these certain men reject authorityit meant that they wanted to be in authority.
Therefore they rejected the authority of God and they rejected those God put in authority. Today, our culture encourages us to reject authority and to recognize self as the only real authority in our lives. We can do this with the Bible, by choosing to only believe certain passages. Or we can do it with our lifestyle, by making our own rules and not recognizing the proper authorities God has established.
In the darkest days of Israel, society was characterized by a term: every man did what was right in his own eyes Judges Today, this is the pattern of all the world and especially Western civilization. These dreamers : It is possible that Jude meant that the certain men were out of touch with reality. It is more likely that he meant they claimed to have prophetic dreams which were really deceptions. Speak evil of dignitaries : Probably these dignitaries were the apostles or other leaders in the church.
Their rejection of authority was connected with their speaking evil of dignitaries. Michael the archangel… the devil : Jude mentioned two kinds of angelic beings. Michael is among the angelic beings faithful to God, who are the servants of God and man. The devil is among the angelic beings rebelling against God, who are the enemies of man. There are invisible, angelic beings all around us.
There are ministering spirits sent by God to assist us, and demonic spirits who want to defeat us. To the devil, we are time bombs, ready to wreck his work — bombs that he would like to defuse and make ineffective. Or, if they believe he exists, they think of him in funny images from the Middle Ages. Back then, miracle plays were a chief form of entertainment. They were sort of a pageant where religious stories were acted out on stage. The audience learned to look for one character that was always dressed in red, wore horns on his head, and had a tail dangling behind him.
His shoes looked like cloven hoofs, and he had a pitchfork in his hand. The audience was amused by this silly characterization of Satan, and got the idea that he was sort of a comical character.
Michael the archangel : This angelic being is mentioned by name in four passages of the Bible: Daniel 10, Daniel 12, Revelation 12 and here in Jude. Every time Michael appears, it is in the context of battle or readiness to fight.
It is Michael the archangel — another high ranking angelic being. There can be properly only one archangelone chief or head of all the angelic host.
Nor is the word devilas applied to the great enemy of mankind, ever found in the plural; there can be but one monarch of all fallen spirits. When he disputed about the body of Moses : This is another obscure reference by Jude. And He buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth Peor; but no one knows the grave to this day. He may have received a unique revelation from God. But according to teachers in the early church, Jude referred to an apocryphal book known as the Assumption of Mosesof which only small portions survive.
Others have thought that Satan wanted to desecrate the body of Moses, and claimed a right to it because Moses had murdered an Egyptian.
We know that after his death, Moses appeared in bodily form at the Transfiguration Matthew with Elijah whose body was caught up to heaven in 2 Kings 2. First, we see that Michael was in a battle. This proves to us that Michael is not Jesus, as some heretical groups have thought. Jesus rebuked the devil in His own authority, but Michael did not. Significantly, Michael dared not bring against him a reviling accusation.
Michael did not mock or accuse the devil. If Michael dared not bring against him a reviling accusation against the devilhow much more should these certain men not speak evil of dignitaries. But these speak evil of whatever they do not know; and whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves. But these speak evil : In contrast to Michael, who would not even speak evil of the devil, these certain men spoke evil, especially when they rejected authority and spoke against dignitaries.
Their evil speech was made worse by their ignorance. Since they also spoke against dignitaries and rejected authority, these certain men did not know about true spiritual leadership and authority — so they found it easy to speak evil against it. Whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves : These certain men pretended to be spiritual, but their only knowledge was really natural.
Even what they knew naturallythey still used to corrupt themselves with an unspiritual mind. Brute beasts can be smart or clever in an instinctive way, but they obviously do not have spiritual knowledge.
It was the same way with these certain men. Each of the sons of Adam and Eve brought an offering to the Lord. Cain being a farmer brought an offering from his harvest. Abel being a shepherd brought an offering from his flocks. Many people assume that because Abel brought a blood sacrifice and Cain brought a grain sacrifice, that the difference between the two offerings was sacrificial blood.
But the real difference was between faith and unbelief. Hebrews makes this plain: By faith Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts; and through it he being dead still speaks.
But his sacrifice was offered without faith, and therefore it was unacceptable to God. You can give to God whatever you have or whatever you are, but you must offer it in faith. The way of Cain : Genesis says that after God rejected his sacrifice, Cain was very angry, and his countenance fell. He became angry because he knew he was rejected by God. In a fit of anger Cain murdered Abel, and then he lied about it to God.
The way of Cain : Jude says that Cain typifies a way that the certain men follow in. It is the way of unbelief and empty religion, which leads to jealousy, persecution of the truly godly, and eventually to murderous anger.
There is no greater curse on the earth than empty, vain religion; those who have a form of godliness but denying its power 2 Timothy No wonder Paul added, and from such people turn away! Many Christians are afraid of secular humanism or atheism or the world. But dead religion is far more dangerous, and sends more people to hell than anything else.
These certain men were in the way One For Jude - Anne Liese (File) Cainwhich is the way of dead religion. During the time of the Exodus, Israel advanced to the land of Moab, after defeating the Amorites. The first delegation from King Balak arrived and God told Balaam to have nothing to do with them. After the first visit another, more prestigious delegation came with great riches.
Balaam wanted to go with them and God allowed him to go. She concluded that Pistorius had an anxiety disorder stemming from his childhood. His parents separated when he was six and his father was hardly ever around. His mother was so anxious, she slept with a firearm under her pillow. She died in which meant Pistorius lost an "emotional attachment figure".
Given his disability, Vorster argued that Pistorius was more likely to respond to any threat with "fight" rather than "flight". On 30 June, the surgeon who amputated Pistorius' legs when he was only eleven months old, Gerald Versfeld agreed, that he would be "severely impaired in a dangerous situation, and would be unable to flee if on his stumps".
Pistorius was also assessed by clinical psychologist, Jonathan Scholtz. On 2 July, defence lawyer Roux read excerpts from his report, which stated "Mr Pistorius has been severely traumatised by the events that took place on 14 FebruaryHe currently suffers from a post-traumatic stress disorder, and a major depressive disorder The degree of anxiety and depression that is present is significant. He is also mourning the loss of Ms One For Jude - Anne Liese (File).
Mr Pistorius is being treated and should continue to receive clinical care by a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist for his current condition. Should he not receive proper clinical care, his condition is likely to worsen and increase the risk for suicide. He did become insecure and jealous at times but this was normal for the specific situation. One For Jude - Anne Liese (File) would express his displeasure and irritation but would try and sort it out later by talking with Miss Steenkamp.
Although the relationship was still young, there were no signs of abusive coercion like those often found in these kinds of relationships. Wayne Derman, professor of sport and exercise medicine at the University of Cape Town, testified that Pistorius was "hyper-vigilant". Derman, who had treated Pistorius over six years while working with South African Olympic and Paralympic teams, said Pistorius' anxieties included concern about flying.
Sean Rens, manager of the International Firearm Training Academy in Walkerville, testified at the trial that Pistorius had "a great love and enthusiasm" for guns. Pistorius told Rens he was going to apply for a collector's license. Rens also described an incident which occurred months before Pistorius killed Steenkamp where he heard a noise in the house, drew his gun and went into "combat mode".
The noise turned out to be coming from his laundry machine. In addition to murder, Pistorius was charged with two other gun-related charges. The first alleged that he recklessly shot his gun out of the open sunroof of a car the previous year and the second that he fired someone else's handgun at a restaurant a few weeks before he shot and killed Steenkamp.
She said Pistorius kept his gun with him all the time, and that he could get very angry. The court's verdict, which was arrived at unanimously by the judge and her two assessors,  was delivered by Masipa over two days. On 11 September she dismissed much of the state's circumstantial evidence, while also describing Pistorius as a "very poor witness". However, Masipa also said a reasonable person in the same circumstances would have "foreseen the possibility that if he fired four shots whoever was behind the toilet [door] might be struck and die as a result".
She said Pistorius "failed to take any steps to avoid the death",  "acted too hastily and used excessive force" and his actions were clearly negligent. He was found not guilty of the charges relating to discharging a firearm through the sunroof of a car and illegal possession of ammunition.
According to media monitoring company ROi Africa, the majority of social media comments during the delivery of the verdict were critical of Masipa after it became evident that Pistorius would not be found guilty of murder. Masipa, who was given police protection from the beginning of the trial, was subjected to threats and personal attacks by people who disagreed with the verdict.
The sentencing hearing began on 13 October State witness Zach Modise, acting national commissioner of Correctional Servicestestified that being disabled Pistorius would be held in Pretoria Central Prison 's hospital wing if he One For Jude - Anne Liese (File) a prison sentence. Steenkamp's cousin Kim Martin testified for the state about the impact on the family and asked the court to impose a prison sentence. On 21 OctoberPistorius received a prison sentence of a maximum of five years for culpable homicide.
On 8 JuneSouth African Commissioner of Correctional Services Zach Modise said that the prison case management committee had recommended that Pistorius be released under correctional supervision on 21 August having served a sixth of his sentence.
Pistorius would remain under house arrest and correctional supervision, and may be required to perform community service as part of his continuing sentence.
Regardless of his release from prison, Pistorius would not be allowed to return to official athletic competition until the whole five years of his One For Jude - Anne Liese (File) was complete. On 19 Augusttwo days before Pistorius was due to leave prison, the justice minister, Michael Masutha, sent the case to the parole review board, saying that the parole board should not have started considering parole until Pistorius had completed a sixth of his sentence.
Legal experts said this was a novel interpretation of the law, and that parole boards generally considered parole in advance of the earliest release date. The parole review board met on 18 September, but the decision was put off for two weeks. On 5 Octoberthe parole review board referred the parole decision back to the original parole panel, stating that Pistorius should be "subjected to psychotherapy" as part of his parole conditions.
On 27 Octoberprosecution spokesman Nathi Mncube confirmed that prosecutors would lodge an appeal against both the verdict and the sentence, arguing that Masipa misinterpreted the law when she cleared Pistorius of murder on the basis that he did not intentionally shoot Steenkamp.
She said that would be tantamount to reviewing her own decision to allow the appeal. It was not clear when the appeal would be heard.
On 14 Septemberthe defence filed papers arguing that the State was disputing Masipa's finding that Pistorius did not intend to kill Steenkamp, but this was not allowed. The prosecution argued that who was behind the toilet door was irrelevant; the defence countered that Pistorius genuinely believed his life was in danger when he opened fire.
The decision by the five judges was unanimous. When reading out the decision, Justice Eric Leach said that since he used a high-calibre weapon, and had firearms training, Pistorius should have realised that whoever was behind the door might die. Finding him guilty of murder, the panel of appeal judges described the case as "a human tragedy of Shakespearean proportions". He was to be allowed to leave home between 7 am and noon each day, but staying within a 20 km radius  of his uncle's mansion in Pretoria, to be enforced with the aid of an electronic monitoring device.
He was required to give up his passport. Pistorius will appeal his murder conviction in South Africa's Constitutional Court. In Decemberthe Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the culpable homicide verdict and found Pistorius guilty of murder, believing Pistorius should have known that firing his gun would have killed whoever was behind the door, regardless of who he thought it was.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Criminal trial. Archived from the original PDF on 9 March Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 11 March Retrieved 27 March The New Zealand Herald. One For Jude - Anne Liese (File) 22 February Business Day. City Press. South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 25 February The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February The Star. Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 12 September On Thursday, Judge Thokosile Masipa indicated that Pistorius would not be found guilty of murder with direct intent or common murder dolus eventualis.
She ruled on Friday morning that the court's unanimous decision was that Pistorius was negligent for firing on Steenkamp. Thus, he was found guilty of culpable homicide. South African Government News Agency.
Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 14 September In her ruling on Friday, Judge Thokozile Masipa instead found the Paralympian guilty of culpable homicide. She also found Pistorius guilty of reckless endangerment of people and property after a gunshot went off in a restaurant. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 21 October Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 24 November NBC News.
Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 22 August The Oscar Pistorius case will be regarded as a Schedule 6 offence for the purposes of his bail application.
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