There are many references to Papagos throughout. Translated, edited, and annotated by Elliott Coues. New York, Francis P. Two volumes. Consult the volumes' index under "Papabi-ootam," "Papago res. Translated and edited by John Galvin. San Francisco, John Howell-Books.
Map, illus. References to Papagos are found on pages v, The First Gale In The Spring - Lolita No. 18 - Live 1995-1996 (CD), 6, 89, 91, and There is no index. In Desert documentary: the Spanish years, [ Historical Monographno.
McCarty, pp. Tucson, Arizona Historical Society. They also attacked the convento where the two-soldier escort stayed. Most San Xavier villagers were away at the time gathering agave. The only livestock remaining at Bac after the attack were A three yoke of oxen, a little over thirty head of cattle, twenty mares and a few colts as well as the riding horses A which were out to pasture.
He says Tucson is completely abandoned during agave harvesting times, and gives further details concerning the Apache threat. He also distinguishes between A Pimas and A Papagos, the latter presumably those people living in the desert to the west. He says that the Tucson Pimas want no missionary other than himself, and he says that his two soldier escorts at San Xavier are doing very well. Francis of Assisi. Garcia, Timothy. Album-directorio del Estado de Sonora.
Hermosillo, Sonora, Gobierno del Estado. Gardiner, Arthur D. See Middendorf Gardulski, Anne F. Gary, Malcolm C. Results indicate that a dramatic shift in reproductive behavior for Papago women has taken place since and some possible explanations for the shift are discussed. Gasser, Robert E. Archaeological Reportno. It is suggested that the Hohokam in this desert region intermittently maintained agricultural field houses in the creosote plains, cacti gathering camps on mountain slopes, and permanent villages and fields on major wash flood plains.
Bruce Masse, pp. Desert PlantsVol. Ravesloot, part 3, pp. Included were charred seeds of the saguaro as well as evidence of corn, cotton, bean, agave, mesquite, acacia, locoweed, legumes cholla, hedgehog cactus, prickly pear cactus, and other plants. In Exploring the Hohokamedited by George J. Gumerman, pp. Dragoon, Arizona, Amerind Foundation. It is noted that the Tohono O'odham took advantage of three desert microenvironments: mountains, bajadas, and floodplains.
They gathered saguaro fruit in the bajadas p. Gastelo, Albert M. Padre on horseback. In Explorations [ Arizonac ], unpaged. Tucson, Devilaire, Sunnyside High School. Gatschet, Albert S. Magazine of American HistoryVol. New York and Chicago, A. American Antiquarian and Oriental JournalVol. Chicago, F. He mentions the book on Southwest Indians published by ten Kate in Holland in Gaynor, Gary. Seedhead NewsNo.
Geare, R. The Red ManVol. Various Papago remedies for headache, stomachache, earache, and consumption are mentioned on page The author writes, "The Papago Indians seem to be healthier than some of the other Southwestern Indians" p.
Gebhardt, Rudolph C. Geiger, Maynard. Francis in Arizona Santa Barbara, California, s. Photos are included of churches at Imika i. Provincial AnnalsVol. Walter Tracy, O. Father Walter once fell off the roof of the mission's kitchen while repairing the roof, and he died soon after from various causes. He lived from until his death on October 19, Translations of parts of some of his letters to relatives are provided here. They describe conditions at the mission and mention Papagos, Pimas, and Apaches.
San Francisco, Franciscan Fathers of California. Gelsinan, Tom. Report on ResearchVol. Gentry, Howard S. Tucson, The University of Arizona Press. Genung, Charles B. Compiled, and with an introduction by Kenneth M. The Smoke Signalnos. Tucson, Tucson Corral of the Westerners. George, Jean C. Illustrated by Fred Brenner. New York, Crowell. Gercke, Daniel J. Gespass, Suzanne R. GettyHarry T. University of Arizona BulletinVol. Tucson, University of Arizona. Ee-ee-toy Elder Brother is noted as a culture hero to the Papago and Pima p.
Getty cites Ruth Underhill's Singing for Power as his source that Papago and Yuma tales are strongly associated with songs. Reed and Dale S. References to Papagos are on pages, and An estimated population of Papagos lived in Tucson in p.
Ghozeil, Sue. Education PeriscopeVol. Gibson, Lay J. Part II-A: population growth and aggregate demand for dwelling units. Part II-B: employment growth. Part IV-B. Employment growth.
Part IV-A: Population growth and the aggregate demand for dwelling units. Supply analysis. Part III-A: assumed land supply by land use type. Five phasing options are considered. Gifford, Edward W. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Curtis a. There are also data concerning Papago moieties, clans, village and moiety exogamy and descent as obtained by Alfred L. Kroeber from Tohono O'odham interpreter Juan Dolores pp. American AnthropologistVol. Menasha, Wisconsin, American Anthropological Association. Comparative tables are included. Anthropological RecordsVol. Giffords, Gloria. Spanish colonial missions. Gila Heritage Park. One of its fourteen pages is devoted to the Papago. The four-paragraph account emphasizes traditional The First Gale In The Spring - Lolita No.
18 - Live 1995-1996 (CD) of the old-time Papago life. Gilbert, Bil. SmithsonianVol. The coati ripped apart a mop and used the parts as elements to build a platform nest in a paloverde. Gilbert, Joanna. FlightimeVol.
Flightime is the in-flight magazine of Continental Airlines. Giles, Fr. Franciscan HeraldVol. John's Indian School at Komatke on the Gila River Indian Reservation, making a strong plea for funds for a farm for the school -- a school primarily serving Pima, Papago, and Apache students.
A photo on page shows the school, nuns, and Indian students. Antonine Willenbrink, of St. This boarding school serves Pimas, Papagos, and Apaches. Nicholas presents the history of the church, one dedicated on March 24,in the name of St.
A photo of the new church is on page Gill, George A. Journal of American Indian EducationVol. Tempe, Arizona State University. Some general education information concerning the Papagos is also listed p. Gillespie, William B. Deer were present as were muskrat and rock squirrel, the latter two since extirpated from the Tucson Basin.
Girton, M. Progressive ArizonaVol. Tucson, Automobile Club of Arizona. Gish, Jannifer W. She also notes p. Gladwin, Winifred J. Medallion Papersno.
Globe, Arizona, Gila Pueblo. There is a "crude" overview of Papago culture on pages Glanzberg, Joel. This "arms race" has led to the coevolution of insects and their host plants. No form of wing is externally visible on the larva, but when larvae are dissected, developing wings can be seen as disks, which can be found on the second and third thoracic segments, in place of the spiracles that are apparent on abdominal segments.
Wing disks develop in association with a trachea that runs along the base of the wing, and are surrounded by a thin peripodial membrane, which is linked to the outer epidermis of the larva by a tiny duct.
Wing disks are very small until the last larval instar, when they increase dramatically in size, are invaded by branching tracheae from the wing base that precede the formation of the wing veins, and begin to develop patterns associated with several landmarks of the wing.
Near pupation, the wings are forced outside the epidermis under pressure from the hemolymphand although they are initially quite flexible and fragile, by the time the pupa breaks free of the larval cuticle, they have adhered tightly to the outer cuticle of the pupa in obtect pupae.
Within hours, the wings form a cuticle so hard and well-joined to the body that pupae can be picked up and handled without damage to the wings.
The larva starts to develop into the pupa : body parts specific to the larva, such as the abdominal prolegs, degenerate, while others such as the legs and wings undergo growth. After finding a suitable place, the animal sheds its last larval cuticle, revealing the pupal cuticle underneath. Depending on the species, the pupa may be covered in a silk cocoon, attached to different types of substrates, buried in the ground, or may not be covered at all.
Features of the imago are externally recognizable in the pupa. All the appendages on the adult head and thorax are found cased inside the cuticle antennaemouthpartsetc. Although the pupal cuticle is highly sclerotized, some of the lower abdominal segments are not fused, and are able to move using small muscles found in between the membrane. Moving may help the pupa, for example, escape the sun, which would otherwise kill it.
The pupa of the Mexican jumping bean moth Cydia saltitans does this. The larvae cut a trapdoor in the bean species of Sebastiania and use the bean as a shelter. With a sudden rise in temperature, the pupa inside twitches and jerks, pulling on the threads inside. Wiggling may also help to deter parasitoid wasps from laying eggs on the pupa. Other species of moths are able to make clicks to deter predators.
The length of time before the pupa ecloses emerges varies greatly. The monarch butterfly may stay in its chrysalis for two weeks, while other species may need to stay for more than 10 months in diapause. The adult emerges from the pupa either by using abdominal hooks or from projections located on the head. The mandibles found in the most primitive moth families are used to escape from their cocoon e.
Most lepidopteran species do not live long after eclosion, only needing a few days to find a mate and then lay their eggs. Others may remain active for a longer period from one to several weeksor go through diapause and overwintering as monarch butterflies do, or waiting out environmental stress. Some adult species of microlepidoptera go through a stage where no reproductive-related activity occurs, lasting through summer and winter, followed by mating and oviposition in the early spring.
While most butterflies and moths are terrestrialmany species of Pyralidae are truly aquatic with all stages except the adult occurring in water. Many species from other families such as ErebidaeNepticulidaeCosmopterygidaeTortricidaeOlethreutidaeNoctuidaeCossidaeand Sphingidae are aquatic or semiaquatic. Flight is an important aspect of the lives of butterflies and moths, and is used for evading predators, searching for food, and finding mates in a timely manner, as most lepidopteran species do not live long after eclosion.
It is the main form of locomotion in most species. In Lepidoptera, the forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, or being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Although lepidopteran species reportedly can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, it reduces their linear flight and turning capabilities. They depend on their body temperature being sufficiently high and since they cannot regulate it themselves, this is dependent on their environment.
Butterflies living in cooler climates may use their wings to warm their bodies. They will bask in the sun, spreading out their wings so that they get maximum exposure to the sunlight.
In hotter climates butterflies can easily overheat, so they are usually active only during the cooler parts of the day, early morning, late afternoon or early evening. During the heat of the day, they rest in the shade. Some larger thick-bodied moths e. Sphingidae can generate their own heat to a limited degree by vibrating their wings. The heat generated by the flight muscles warms the thorax while the temperature of the abdomen is unimportant for flight.
To avoid overheating, some moths rely on hairy scales, internal air sacs, and other structures to separate the thorax and abdomen and keep the abdomen cooler. Some species of butterflies can reach fast speeds, such as the southern dartwhich can go as fast as Sphingids are some of the fastest flying insects, some are capable of flying at over 50 kilometres per hour 31 mphhaving a wingspan of 35— millimetres 1.
Flight occurs either as hovering, or as forward or backward motion. Navigation is important to Lepidoptera species, especially for those that migrate. Butterflies, which have more species that migrate, have been shown to navigate using time-compensated sun compasses. They can see polarized lightso can orient even in cloudy conditions. The polarized light in the region close to the ultraviolet spectrum is suggested to be particularly important. Lepidoptera may use coastal lines, mountains, and even roads to orient themselves.
Above sea, the flight direction is much more accurate if the coast is still visible. Many studies have also shown that moths navigate.
One study showed that many moths may use the Earth's magnetic field to navigate, as a study of the moth heart and dart suggests. Moths exhibit a tendency to circle artificial lights repeatedly. This suggests they use a technique of celestial navigation called transverse orientation. By maintaining a constant angular relationship to a bright celestial light, such as the Moonthey can fly in a straight line.
Celestial objects are so far away, even after traveling great distances, the change in angle between the moth and the light source is negligible; further, the moon will always be in the upper part of the visual field or on the horizon.
When a moth encounters a much closer artificial light and uses it for navigation, the angle changes noticeably after only a short distance, in addition to being often below the horizon.
The moth instinctively attempts to correct by turning toward the light, causing airborne moths to come plummeting downwards, and at close range, which results in a spiral flight path that gets closer and closer to the light source. He stated that they fly towards the darkest part of the sky in pursuit of safety, thus are inclined to circle ambient objects in the Mach band region.
Lepidopteran migration is typically seasonalas the insects moving to escape dry seasons or other disadvantageous conditions. Most lepidopterans that migrate are butterflies, and the distance travelled varies. Some butterflies that migrate include the mourning cloakpainted ladyAmerican ladyred admiraland the common buckeye. Other well-known migratory species include the painted lady and several of the danaine butterflies.
Spectacular and large-scale migrations associated with the monsoons are seen in peninsular India. Moths also undertake migrations, an example being the uraniids.
Urania fulgens undergoes population explosions and massive migrations that may be not surpassed by any other insect in the Neotropics. In Costa Rica and Panamathe first population movements may begin in July and early August and depending on the year, may be very massive, continuing unabated for as long as five months.
Pheromones are commonly involved in mating rituals among species, especially moths, but they are also an important aspect of other forms of communication. Usually, the pheromones are produced by either the male or the female and detected by members of the opposite sex with their antennae. Moths are known to engage in acoustic forms of communication, most often as courtship, attracting mates using sound or vibration. Like most other insects, moths pick up these sounds using tympanic membranes in their abdomens.
These sounds also function as tactile communication, or communication through touch, as they stridulate, or vibrate a substrate like leaves and stems. Most moths lack bright colors, as many species use coloration as camouflagebut butterflies engage in visual communication.
Female cabbage butterfliesfor example, use ultraviolet light to communicate, with scales colored in this range on the dorsal wing surface. When they fly, each down stroke of the wing creates a brief flash of ultraviolet light which the males apparently recognize as the flight signature of a potential mate.
These flashes from the wings may attract several males that engage in aerial courtship displays. Moths and butterflies are important in the natural ecosystem. They are integral participants in the food chain; having co-evolved with flowering plants and predators, lepidopteran species have formed a network of trophic relationships between autotrophs and heterotrophswhich are included in the stages of Lepidoptera larvae, pupae, and adults.
Larvae and pupae are links in the diets of birds and parasitic entomophagous insects. The adults are included in food webs in a much broader range of consumers including birds, small mammals, reptiles, etc.
Lepidopteran species are soft bodied, fragile, and almost defenseless, while the immature stages move slowly or are immobile, hence all stages are exposed to predation.
Adult butterflies and moths are preyed upon by birdsbatslizardsamphibiansdragonfliesand spiders. One spider species, Argiope argentataeats butterflies and moths and exhibits a long bite when preying on them rather than wrapping them in silk first.
This is theorized to serve as an immobilization tactic. Parasitoid and parasitic wasps and flies may lay eggs in the caterpillar, which eventually kill it as they hatch inside its body and eat its tissues. Insect-eating birds are probably the largest predators. Lepidoptera, especially the immature stages, are an ecologically important food to many insectivorous birds, such as the great tit in Europe. An " evolutionary arms race " can be seen between predator and prey species.
The Lepidoptera have developed a number of strategies for defense and protection, including evolution of morphological characters and changes in ecological lifestyles and behaviors. These include aposematismmimicrycamouflageand development of threat patterns and displays.
Their main predators are bats. Again, an "evolutionary race" exists, which has led to numerous evolutionary adaptations of moths to escape from their main predators, such as the ability to hear ultrasonic sounds, or even to emit sounds in some cases. Lepidopteran eggs are also preyed upon. Some caterpillars, such as the zebra swallowtail butterfly larvae, are cannibalistic.
Some species of Lepidoptera are poisonous to predators, such as the monarch butterfly in the Americas, Atrophaneura species roses, windmills, etc. They obtain their toxicity by sequestering the chemicals from the plants they eat into their own tissues.
Some Lepidoptera manufacture their own toxins. Predators that eat poisonous butterflies and moths may become sick and vomit violently, learning not to eat those species.
A predator which has previously eaten a poisonous lepidopteran may avoid other species with similar markings in the future, thus saving many other species, as well.
This phenomenon is known as aposematism. Camouflage is also an important defense strategy, which involves the use of coloration or shape to blend into the surrounding environment.
Some lepidopteran species blend with their surroundings, making them difficult to spot by predators. Caterpillars can exhibit shades of green that match its host plant. Others look like inedible objects, such as twigs or leaves. For instance, the mourning cloak fades into the backdrop of trees when it folds its wings back.
The larvae of some species, such as the common Mormon Papilio polytes and the western tiger swallowtail look like bird droppings.
In butterflies, the spots are composed of concentric rings of scales in different colors. The proposed role of the eyespots is to deflect attention of predators. Their resemblance to eyes provokes the predator's instinct to attack these wing patterns. Genetic polymorphism and natural selection give rise to otherwise edible species the mimic gaining a survival advantage by resembling inedible species the model. Such a mimicry complex is referred to as Batesian and is most commonly known in the example between the limenitidine viceroy butterfly in relation to the inedible danaine monarch.
Moths evidently are able to hear the range emitted by bats, which in effect causes flying moths to make evasive maneuvers because bats are a main predator of moths.
Ultrasonic frequencies trigger a reflex action in the noctuid moth that cause it to drop a few inches in its flight to evade attack.
Most species of Lepidoptera engage in some form of entomophily more specifically psychophily and phalaenophily for butterflies and moths, respectivelyor the pollination of flowers. In the process, the adults brush against the flowers' stamenson which the reproductive pollen is made and stored. The pollen is transferred on appendages on the adults, which fly to the next flower to feed and unwittingly deposit the pollen on the stigma of the next flower, where the pollen germinates and fertilizes the seeds.
Flowers pollinated by butterflies tend to be large and flamboyant, pink or lavender in color, frequently having a landing area, and usually scented, as butterflies are typically day-flying. Since butterflies do not digest pollen except for heliconid species more nectar is offered than pollen.
The flowers have simple nectar guides, with the nectaries usually hidden in narrow tubes or spurs, reached by the long "tongue" of the butterflies.
Butterflies such as Thymelicus flavus have been observed to engage in flower constancywhich means they are more likely to transfer pollen to other conspecific plants. This can be beneficial for the plants being pollinated, as flower constancy prevents the loss of pollen during different flights and the pollinators from clogging stigmas with pollen of other flower species.
Among the more important moth pollinator groups are the hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. Their behavior is similar to hummingbirdsi. Most hawk moths are nocturnal or crepuscularso moth-pollinated flowers e. A lot of nectar is produced to fuel the high metabolic rates needed to power their flight. They do not require as much nectar as the fast-flying hawk moths, and the flowers tend to be small though they may be aggregated in heads.
Mutualism is a form of biological interaction wherein each individual involved benefits in some way. An example of a mutualistic relationship would be that shared by yucca moths Tegeculidae and their host, yucca flowers Asparagaceae.
Female yucca moths enter the host flowers, collect the pollen into a ball using specialized maxillary palps, then move to the apex of the pistil, where pollen is deposited on the stigma, and lay eggs into the base of the pistil where seeds will develop.
The larvae develop in the fruit pod and feed on a portion of the seeds. Thus, both insect and plant benefit, forming a highly mutualistic relationship. The larvae communicate with the ants using vibrations transmitted through a substrate, such as the wood of a tree or stems, as well as using chemical signals.
Only 42 species of parasitoid lepidopterans are known 1 Pyralidae ; 40 Epipyropidae. In northern Europe, the wax moth is regarded as the most serious parasitoid of the bumblebee, and is found only in bumblebee nests. In reverse, moths and butterflies may be subject to parasitic wasps and flieswhich may lay eggs on the caterpillars, which hatch and feed inside its body, resulting in death.
Although, in a form of parasitism called idiobiont, the adult paralyzes the host, so as not to kill it but for it to live as long as possible, for the parasitic larvae to benefit the most. In another form of parasitism, koinobiont, the species live off their hosts while inside endoparasitic. These parasites live inside the host caterpillar throughout its life cycle, or may affect it later on as an adult. In other orders, koinobionts include flies, a majority of coleopteranand many hymenopteran parasitoids.
In response to a parasitoid egg or larva in the caterpillar's body, the plasmatocytesor simply the host's cells can form a multilayered capsule that eventually causes the endoparasite to asphyxiate. The process, called encapsulation, is one of the caterpillar's only means of defense against parasitoids.
A few species of Lepidoptera are secondary consumers, or predators. These species typically prey upon the eggs of other insects, aphids, scale insects, or ant larvae. Hawaiian Eupithecia. Those of the 15 species in Eupithecia that mirror inchworms, are the only known species of butterflies and moths that are ambush predators.
For example, the Hawaiian caterpillar Hyposmocoma molluscivora uses silk traps, in a manner similar to that of spiders, to capture certain species of snails typically Tornatellides. Larvae of some species of moths in the TineidaeGelechiidaeand Noctuidaebesides others, feed on detritusor dead organic material, such as fallen leaves and fruit, fungi, and animal products, and turn it into humus. These species are important to ecosystems as they remove substances that would otherwise take a long time to decompose.
In it was reported that wasp bracovirus DNA was present in Lepidoptera such as monarch butterflies, silkworms and moths. Linnaeus in Systema Naturae recognized three divisions of the Lepidoptera: PapilioSphinx and Phalaenawith seven subgroups in Phalaena.
Among the first entomologists to study fossil insects and their evolution was Samuel Hubbard Scudder —who worked on butterflies. Andreas V. Martynov — recognized the close relationship between Lepidoptera and Trichoptera in his studies on phylogeny. Major contributions in the 20th century included the creation of the monotrysia and ditrysia based on female genital structure by Borner in and Niels P. Kristensen, E. Nielsen and D. Davis studied the relationships among monotrysian families and Kristensen worked more generally on insect phylogeny and higher Lepidoptera too.
Many attempts have been made to group the superfamilies of the Lepidoptera into natural groups, most of which fail because one of the two groups is not monophyletic : Microlepidoptera and Macrolepidoptera, Heterocera and Rhopalocera, Jugatae and Frenatae, Monotrysia and Ditrysia.
The fossil record for Lepidoptera is lacking in comparison to other winged species, and tends not to be as common as some other insects in habitats that are most conducive to fossilization, such as lakes and ponds; their juvenile stage has only the head capsule as a hard part that might be preserved. Lepidopteran bodies tend to come apart after death, and decompose quickly, so fossil remains are often extremely fragmentary.
Leaf mines are also seen in fossil leaves, although the interpretation of them is tricky. Putative fossil stem group representatives of Amphiesmenoptera the clade comprising Trichoptera and Lepidoptera are known from the Triassic. They were found as rare palynological elements in the sediments of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from the cored Schandelah-1 well, drilled near Braunschweig in northern Germany.
This pushes back the fossil record and origin of glossatan lepidopterans by about 70 million years, supporting molecular estimates of a Norian ca million years divergence of glossatan and non-glossatan lepidopterans. The findings were reported in in the journal Science Advances. The authors of the study proposed that lepidopterans evolved a proboscis as an adaptation to drink from droplets and thin films of water for maintaining their fluid balance in the hot and arid climate of the Triassic.
The earliest named lepidopteran taxon is Archaeolepis manea primitive moth-like species from the Early Jurassicdated back to around million years agoand known only from three wings found in the Charmouth Mudstone of DorsetUK. The wings show scales with parallel grooves under a scanning electron microscope and a characteristic wing venation pattern shared with Trichoptera caddisflies.
Many more fossils are found from the Tertiary, and particularly the Eocene Baltic amber. The best preserved fossil lepidopteran is the Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds. Lepidoptera and Trichoptera caddisflies are sister groupssharing many similarities that are lacking in others; for example the females of both orders are heterogameticmeaning they have two different sex chromosomeswhereas in most species the males are heterogametic and the females have two identical sex chromosomes.
The adults in both orders display a particular wing venation pattern on their forewings. The larvae in the two orders have mouth structures and glands with which they make and manipulate silk. Willi Hennig grouped the two orders into the superorder Amphiesmenoptera ; together they are sister to the extinct order Tarachoptera.
The cladogrambased on a DNA and protein analysis, shows the order as a cladesister to the Trichoptera, and more distantly related to the Diptera true flies and Mecoptera scorpionflies. Diptera true flies. Mecoptera scorpionflies. Boreidae snow scorpionflies. Siphonaptera fleas. Trichoptera caddisflies. Lepidoptera butterflies and moths. Hymenoptera sawflies, wasps, ants, bees. MicropterigidaeAgathiphagidae and Heterobathmiidae are the oldest and most basal lineages of Lepidoptera.
The adults of these families do not have the curled tongue or proboscisthat are found in most members of the order, but instead have chewing mandibles adapted for a special diet. Micropterigidae larvae feed on leavesfungior liverworts much like the Trichoptera. In the Agathiphagidae, larvae live inside kauri pines and feed on seeds.
In Heterobathmiidae the larvae feed on the leaves of Nothofagusthe southern beech tree. On March 24, the jurors listened for 45 minutes to a rereading of testimony of the State Police chemist regarding the blood found at the scene, on the LeMans, and Shakur's clothing. Shakur was convicted on all eight counts: two murder charges, and six assault charges.
Lewis, the jury foreman, read the verdict, Kunstler asked that the jury be removed before alleging that one juror had violated the sequestration order see above. At the post-trial press conference, Kunstler blamed the verdict on racism, stating that "the white element was there to destroy her".
When asked by a reporter why, if that were the case, it took the jury 24 hours to reach a verdict, Kunstler replied, "That was just a pretense.
At Shakur's sentencing hearing on April 25, Appleby sentenced her to 26 to 33 The First Gale In The Spring - Lolita No. 18 - Live 1995-1996 (CD) in state prison 10 to 12 for the four counts of assault, 12 to 15 for robbery, 2 to 3 for armed robbery, plus 2 to 3 for aiding and abetting the murder of Foersterto be served consecutively with her mandatory life sentence. However, Appleby dismissed the second-degree murder of Zayd Shakur, as the New Jersey Supreme Court had recently narrowed the application of the law.
In OctoberNew York State Superior Court Justice John Starkey dismissed murder and robbery charges against Shakur related to the death of Richard Nelson during a hold-up of a Brooklyn social club on December 28,ruling that the state had delayed too long in bringing her to trial. Judge Starkey said, "People have constitutional rights, and you can't shuffle them around. On November 22,Shakur pleaded not guilty to an attempted armed robbery indictment stemming from the incident at the Statler Hilton Hotel.
Richard Gibbons. Shakur's only daughter, Kakuya Shakur, was conceived during her trial  and born on September 11. Chesimard", p. In her autobiography, Shakur claims that she was beaten and restrained by several large female officers after refusing a medical exam from a prison doctor shortly after giving birth.
State correction officials disclosed in November that they had not run identity checks on Shakur's visitors  and that the three men and one woman who assisted in her escape had presented false identification to enter the prison's visitor room,  before which they were not searched.
At the time of the escape, Kunstler had just started to prepare her appeal. At the rally, a statement from Shakur was circulated condemning U. For years after Shakur's escape, the movements, activities and phone calls of her friends and relatives—including her daughter walking to school in upper Manhattan—were monitored by investigators in an attempt to ascertain her whereabouts.
Shakur was in Cuba by ; in that year she was granted political asylum there. Inher presence in Cuba became widely known when she agreed to be interviewed by Newsday. Inshe published Assata: An Autobiographywhich was written in Cuba. Her autobiography has been cited in relation to critical legal studies  and critical race theory.
Shakur challenges traditional styles of literary autobiography and offers a perspective on her life that is not easily accessible to the public. The United States Congress passed a non-binding resolution in Septemberasking Cuba for the return of Shakur as well as 90 fugitives believed by Congress to be residing in Cuba; House Concurrent Resolution passed —0 in the House and by unanimous consent in the Senate.
In an open The First Gale In The Spring - Lolita No. 18 - Live 1995-1996 (CD) to Castro, chair of the Congressional Black Caucus Representative Maxine Waters of California later explained that many members of the Caucus including herself were against Shakur's extradition but had mistakenly voted for the bill, which was placed on the accelerated suspension calendar, generally reserved for non-controversial legislation.
A condition of making a new deal between the United States and Cuba is the release of political prisoners and the return of fugitives from justice.
Trump specifically called for the return of "the cop-killer Joanne Chesimard". A documentary film about Shakur, Eyes of the Rainbowwritten and directed by Cuban filmmaker Gloria Rolandoappeared in A student group won the right to use the lounge after a campus shutdown over proposed tuition increases. Following controversy, inBorough of Manhattan Community College renamed a scholarship that had previously been named for Shakur. Bruce Franklinwho excerpts Shakur's book in a class on 'Crime and Punishment in American Literature,' describes her as a "revolutionary fighter against imperialism".
Black NJ State Trooper Anthony Reed who has left the force sued the police force because, among other things, persons had hung posters of Shakur, altered to include Reed's badge number, in a Newark barracks.
He felt it was intended to insult him, as she had killed an officer, and was "racist in nature". The largely Internet-based "Hands Off Assata! InNew Jersey's Kean University dropped hip-hop artist Common as a commencement speaker because of police complaints. The Chicago Black activist group Assata's Daughters is named in her honor. In Julythe Women's March official Twitter feed celebrated Shakur's birthday, leading to criticism from some right-wing media outlets.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Joanne Chesterman. For the book, see Assata: An Autobiography.
New York CityU. Louis Chesimard. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on June 11, Retrieved July 16, What happens to Assata Shakur now? The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 November An Autobiography of Assata Shakur.
Lennox S. Hinds foreword. Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN Retrieved Retrieved June 6, The Big Dance: the untold story of Kathy Boudin and the terrorist family that committed the Brink's robbery murders. Dodd, Mead. Gloria Roland. Asset Shakur. May 4, May 15, Basic Civitas Books. Assata: An Autobiography. Zed Books. SUNY Press. The Guardian. NYU Press. Assata - an autobiography. London: Zed, April 7, The New York Times.
Retrieved June 12, Avon ISBN December 22, January 30, The New York Timesp. New York: Avon Books. Windsor Press and Publishing. Salinger intends to write a Glass trilogy. His first new work in six years, the novella took up most of the June 19,issue of The New Yorkerand was universally panned by critics.
Around this time, Salinger had isolated Claire from friends and relatives and made her—in Margaret Salinger's words—"a virtual prisoner. Inat age 53, Salinger had a relationship with year-old Joyce Maynard that lasted for nine months. Maynard was already an experienced writer for Seventeen magazine. Salinger wrote her a letter warning about living with fame. After exchanging 25 letters, Maynard moved in with Salinger the summer after her freshman year at Yale University.
The relationship ended, he told Margaret at a family outing, because Maynard wanted children, and he felt he was too old. She had dropped out of Yale to be with him, even forgoing a scholarship.
Maynard came to find out that Salinger had begun several relationships with young women by exchanging letters. One of them was his last wife, a nurse who was already engaged to be married to someone else when she met him. It appeared that in the case of one girl, Salinger was writing letters to her while I sat in the next room, believing he was my soul mate and partner for life. While he was living with Maynard, Salinger continued to write in a disciplined fashion, a few hours every morning.
According to Maynard, by he had completed two new novels. I like to write. I love to write. But I write just for myself and my own pleasure. Salinger's final interview was in June with Betty Eppes of The Baton Rouge Advocatewhich has been represented somewhat differently, depending on the secondary source.
By one account, Eppes was an attractive young woman who misrepresented herself as an aspiring novelist, and managed to record audio of the interview as well as take several photographs of Salinger, both without his knowledge or consent. According to the first account, the interview ended "disastrously" when a passerby from Cornish attempted to shake Salinger's hand, at which point Salinger became enraged. She said that she had turned down several lucrative offers for the tape, the only known recording of Salinger's voice, and that she had changed her will to stipulate that it be placed along with her body in the crematorium.
Salinger was romantically involved with television actress Elaine Joyce for several years in the s. June 11,a nurse and quiltmaker, whom he married around Although Salinger tried to escape public exposure as much as possible, he struggled with unwanted attention from the media and the public.
Salinger sued to stop the book's publication and in Salinger v. Random House the court ruled that Hamilton's extensive use of the letters, including quotation and paraphrasing, was not acceptable since the author's right to control publication overrode the right of fair use. Salinger: A Writing Life —65 about his experience in tracking down information and the copyright fights over the planned biography. An unintended consequence of the lawsuit was that many details of Salinger's private life, including that he had spent the last 20 years writing, in his words, "Just a work of fiction That's all" became public in the form of court transcripts.
I can see them at home evenings. Chaplin squatting grey and nude, atop his chiffonierswinging his thyroid around his head by his bamboo cane, like a dead rat. Oona in an aquamarine gown, applauding madly from the bathroom. InIranian director Dariush Mehrjui released the film Parian unauthorized loose adaptation of Franny and Zooey. The film could be distributed legally in Iran since it has no copyright relations with the United States, Salinger had his lawyers block a planned screening of it at Lincoln Center.
InSalinger gave a small publisher, Orchises Press, permission to publish " Hapworth 16, ". After a flurry of articles and critical reviews of the story appeared in the press, the publication date was pushed back repeatedly before apparently being canceled altogether. Amazon anticipated that Orchises would publish the story in Januarybut at the time of his death, it was still listed as "unavailable".
In JuneSalinger consulted lawyers about the forthcoming U. The book appears to continue the story of Holden Caulfield. In Salinger's novel, Caulfield is 16, wandering the streets of New York after being expelled from private school; the California book features a year-old man, "Mr.
C", musing on having escaped his nursing home. The fact that little was known about Colting and the book was set to be published by a new publishing imprint, Windupbird Publishing, gave rise to speculation in literary circles that the whole thing might be a hoax. Colting remains free to sell the book in the rest of the world. Salinger, author of the classic novel of adolescent rebellion, The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger is almost equally famous for having elevated privacy to an art form. In25 years after the end of their relationship, Maynard auctioned a series of letters Salinger had written her. Her memoir At Home in the World was published the same year. The book describes how Maynard's mother had consulted with her on how to appeal to Salinger by dressing in a childlike manner, and describes Maynard's relationship with him at length.
In the ensuing controversy over the memoir and the letters, Maynard claimed that she was forced to auction the letters for financial reasons; she would have preferred to donate them to the Beinecke Library at Yale.
In it, she describes the harrowing control Salinger had over her mother and dispelled many of the Salinger myths established by Hamilton's book. One of Hamilton's arguments was that Salinger's experience with post-traumatic stress disorder left him psychologically scarred. Margaret Salinger allowed that "the few men who lived through Bloody Mortaina battle in which her father fought, were left with much to sicken them, body and soul",  but she also painted her father as a man immensely proud of his service record, maintaining his military haircut and service jacket, and moving about his compound and town in an old Jeep.
Both Margaret Salinger and Maynard characterized Salinger as a film buff. FieldsLaurel and Hardyand the Marx Brothers. Maynard wrote that "he loves movies, not films",  and Margaret Salinger argued that her father's "worldview is, essentially, a product of the movies of his day. To my father, all Spanish speakers are Puerto Rican washerwomen, or the toothless, grinning-gypsy types in a Marx Brothers movie.
He enjoyed watching actors work, and he enjoyed knowing them. Margaret also offered many insights into other Salinger myths, including her father's supposed longtime interest in macrobiotics and involvement with alternative medicine and Eastern philosophies. He disparaged his sister's "gothic tales of our supposed childhood" and wrote, "I can't say with any authority that she is consciously making anything up.
I just know that I grew up in a very different house, with two very different parents from those my sister describes. Salinger died of natural causes at his home in New Hampshire on January 27, He was Salinger wrote all his life.
His widow and son began preparing this work for publication after his death, announcing in that "all of what he wrote will at some point be shared" but that it was a big job and not yet ready.
In a contributor's note Salinger gave to Harper's Magazine inhe wrote, "I almost always write about very young people", a statement that has been called his credo. Inthe critic Alfred Kazin explained that Salinger's choice of teenagers as a subject matter was one reason for his appeal to young readers, but another was "a consciousness [among youths] that he speaks for them and virtually to them, in a language that is peculiarly honest and their own, with a vision of things that capture their most secret judgments of the world.
Salinger identified closely with his characters,  and used techniques such as interior monologue, letters, and extended telephone calls to display his gift for dialogue. Recurring themes in Salinger's stories also connect to the ideas of innocence and adolescence, including the "corrupting influence of Hollywood and the world at large",  the disconnect between teenagers and "phony" adults,  and the perceptive, precocious intelligence of children.
Contemporary critics discuss a clear progression over the course of Salinger's published work, as evidenced by the increasingly negative reviews each of his three post- Catcher The First Gale In The Spring - Lolita No. 18 - Live 1995-1996 (CD) collections received. It took the standards of The New Yorker editors, among them William Shawnto refine his writing into the "spare, teasingly mysterious, withheld" qualities of " A Perfect Day for Bananafish "The Catcher in the Ryeand his stories of the early s.
He seemed to lose interest in fiction as an art form—perhaps he thought there was something manipulative or inauthentic about literary device and authorial control. Rereading it and its companion piece 'Franny' is no less rewarding than rereading The Great Gatsby. Salinger's writing has influenced several prominent writers, prompting Harold Brodkey an O. Henry Award -winning author to say in"His is the most influential body of work in English prose by anyone since Hemingway.
Salinger really opened my eyes as to how you can weave fiction out of a set of events that seem almost unconnected, or very lightly connected National Book Award finalist Richard Yates told The New York Times in that reading Salinger's stories for the first time was a landmark experience, and that "nothing quite like it has happened to me since".
InMenand wrote in The New Yorker that " Catcher in the Rye rewrites" among each new generation had become "a literary genre all its own". Writer Aimee Bender was struggling with her first short stories when a friend gave her a copy of Nine Stories ; inspired, she later described Salinger's effect on writers, explaining: "[I]t feels like Salinger wrote The Catcher in the Rye in a day, and that incredible feeling of ease inspires writing.
Inspires the pursuit of voice. Not his voice. My voice. Your voice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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